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The scientific payload had a mass of 90 kg (198 lb) and contained five Indian instruments and six instruments from other countries.

Indian instruments

Terrain Mapping Camera - TMC

CMOS camera with 5 m (16 ft) resolution and a 40 km (25 mi) swath in the panchromatic band and was used to produce a high-resolution map of the Moon. The aim of this instrument was to completely map the topography of the Moon. The camera works in the visible region of the electromagnetic spectrum and captures black and white stereo images. When used in conjunction with data from Lunar Laser Ranging Instrument (LLRI), it can help in better understanding of the lunar gravitational field as well. TMC was built by the ISRO's Space Applications Centre (SAC) at Ahmedabad. The TMC was tested on 29 October 2008 through a set of commands issued from ISTRAC.

  Hyper Spectral Imager - HySI

CMOS camera, performed mineralogical mapping in the 400–900 nm band with a spectral resolution of 15 nm and a spatial resolution of 80 m (260 ft).

Lunar Laser Ranging Instrument - LLRI

Determines the height of the surface topography by sending pulses of infrared laser light towards the lunar surface and detecting the reflected portion of that light. It operated continuously and collected 10 measurements per second on both the day and night sides of the Moon. LLRI was developed by Laboratory for Electro Optics Systems of ISRO, Bangalore. It was tested on 16 November 2008.

 High Energy X-ray Spectrometer - HEX 

High Energy aj/gamma x-ray spectrometer for 30–200 keV measurements with ground resolution of 40 km (25 mi), the HEX measured U, Th, 210Pb, 222Rn degassing, and other radioactive elements.

 Moon Impact Probe- MIP

Developed by the ISRO, is an impact probe which consisted of a C-band Radar altimeter for measurement of altitude of the probe, a video imaging system for acquiring images of the lunar surface and a mass spectrometer for measuring the constituents of the lunar atmosphere. It was ejected at 14:30 UTC on 14 November 2008. As planned, the Moon Impact Probe impacted the lunar south pole at 15:01 UTC on 14 November 2008. It carried with it a picture of the Indian flag. India is now the fourth nation to place a flag on the Moon after the Soviet Union, United States and Japan.

Instruments from other countries
C1XS or X-ray fluorescence spectrometer

Covering 1–10 keV, mapped the abundance of Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Ti, and Fe at the surface with a ground resolution of 25 km (16 mi), and monitored solar flux.[38] This payload results from collaboration between Rutherford Appleton laboratory, U.K, ESA and ISRO. It was activated on 23 November 2008.

 Sub-keV Atom Reflecting Analyser - SARA

Sub-keV Atom Reflecting Analyser from the ESA mapped mineral composition using low energy neutral atoms emitted from the surface.

Moon Mineralogy Mapper - M3

Moon Mineralogy Mapper from Brown University and JPL (funded by NASA) is an imaging spectrometer designed to map the surface mineral composition. It was activated on 17 December 2008.

Near infrared spectrometer - SIR-2

A near infrared spectrometer from ESA, built at the Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research, Polish Academy of Science and University of Bergen, also mapped the mineral composition using an infrared grating spectrometer. The instrument is similar to that of the Smart-1 SIR. It was activated on 19 November 2008 and scientific observations were started on 20 November 2008.

Miniature Synthetic Aperture Radar - Mini-SAR

Designed, built and tested for NASA by a large team that includes the Naval Air Warfare Center, Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, Sandia National Laboratories, Raytheon and Northrop Grumman, with outer support from ISRO. Mini-SAR is the active Synthetic Aperture Radar system to search for lunar polar ice, water-ice. The instrument transmitted right polarised radiation with a frequency of 2.5 GHz and monitored scattered left and right polarised radiation. The Fresnel reflectivity and the circular polarisation ratio (CPR) are the key parameters deduced from these measurements. Ice shows the Coherent Backscatter Opposition Effect which results in an enhancement of reflections and CPR, so that water content of the Moon's polar regions can be estimated.

Radiation Dose Monitor Experiment - RADOM-7

Radiation Dose Monitor Experiment from the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences mapped the radiation environment around the Moon. It was tested on 16 November 2008.